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APR DRG

3M APR DRGs were first released in 1991. The 3M APR DRG logic uses claims data to assign patients to one of 332 base 3M APR DRGs that are determined either by the principal diagnosis or, for surgical patients, the most important surgical procedure. Each base 3M APR DRG is then divided into four severity of illness (SOI) levels, determined. • APR-DRGs make clinical sense. The clinical logic of APR-DRGs has undergone the most intensive scrutiny of any severity system on the market. • The logic is open and available. APR-DRGs are not a black box. • The system was designed to be fully comprehensive and account for all payers, patients, and ages (including pediatrics) Indicates the APR-DRG relative weight; Payment can be calculated by multiplying the APR-DRG relative weight by the Hospital base rate. Low volume APR-DRG. Payment can be calculated by multiplying the APR-DRG type Per Diem rate by the length of stay MED Not Covered PSYCH: Number APR-DRGs from version 31 by 3M Health Information System APR DRG DRG Description. All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Groups V38 Descriptions. 608 NEONATE BWT 1250-1499G W OR W/O OTHER SIGNIFICANT CONDITION 609. NEONATE BWT 1500-2499G W MAJOR PROCEDURE. 611: NEONATE BIRTHWT 1500-1999G W MAJOR ANOMALY 612 The APR-DRG structure is similar to the AP-DRG, but also measures severity of illness and risk of mortality in addition to resource utilization. Additional details are below. DRGs vs. AP-DRGs vs. APR-DRGs: More Details. The basic DRGs are used by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) for hospital payment for Medicare beneficiaries

3M™ All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Groups (APR DRGs

  1. APR DRG assignment and the patient's age are evaluated, and other other criteria are applied. Here is an example of the standard or default SOI assignment for some diabetes codes. * And here is an example of the standard ROM level for cardiac codes. For example, premature beats are not necessarily life threatening while ventricular.
  2. 3M™ APR DRG Grouper Modifications Sep-2012 - Page 7 3M™ APR DRG v30.0 Grouper Modifications This document contains a brief description of the modifications made to the 3M™ APR DRG grouper since v29.0 that are effective with v30.0
  3. APR-DRG (versie 15.0) Met de AP-DRG's (All Patient Diagnosis Related Groups) kan de ernst van de aandoening , zoals gedefinieerd door de artsen (de ernst van de pathologie, de prognose, het risico op overlijden, ) niet bepaald worden. Daarom werd tot de ontwikkeling van de APR-DRG's (All Patient Refine
  4. Les APR-DRG (version 15.0). Le fait que les AP-DRG (All Patient Diagnosis Related Groups) ne permettent pas d'appréhender la sévérité de la pathologie, telle que définie par les médecins (la difficulté du traitement, l

What is the difference between DRGs, AP-DRGs, and APR-DRGs

  1. Final APR-DRG Weights Effective July 1, 2018 (v34) July 1, 2018 APR-DRG Service Intensity Weights, Average Length of Stay and High Cost Outlier Thresholds Final Weights are also available in EXCEL Format (XLSX) Updated 01/02/201
  2. Medicare Severity DRGs (MS-DRGs), All Patient DRGs (AP-DRGs), and All Patient Refined DRGs (APR DRGs). The classic CMS DRGs (prior to FY 2008) and MS-DRGs (beginning in FY 2008) are used by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) for hospital payment for Medicare beneficiaries. The AP-DRGs are an expansion of the basic DRGs to be mor
  3. APR-DRGs were developed to also reflect the clinical complexity of the patient population. Just as with MS-DRGs, an APR-DRG payment is calculated by using an assigned numerical weight that is multiplied by a fixed dollar amount specific to each provider. Each base APR-DRG, however, considers severity of illness and risk of mortality instead of.
  4. Final APR-DRG Weights Effective January 1, 2011 (v28) Final APR-DRG Weights Effective December 1, 2009 (v26.1) Note: The version (v#) displayed above pertains to the 3M All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Groups (APR-DRG) that will be utilized for the payment of the Medicaid, Workers Compensation and No-Fault rates. July 1, 2018 Inpatient.
  5. DRGs (APR-DRGs, MS-DRGs, AP-DRGs, other DRGs) Of the above payment types, DRGs are the most common reimbursement model for state Medicaid programs. This is important because the majority of pediatric discharges in the U.S. are covered by Medicaid. In addition, many managed care and commercial payers use the DRG payment model for pediatric patients
  6. • In APR‐DRG,you get 69,000 chances to change the relative weight, LOS, and quality scores for the assigned DRG APR‐DRG 25 Secondary Diagnoses 8 An APR‐DRG chart review takes longer than a MS‐DRG chart review. 9 ED Record 72‐year‐oldfemalepresents to ED complaining ofsymptomsofdysuria,fever,andAMS

APR DRGs are an extension of DRGs to account for severity of illness and risk of mortality Assignment to a Base APR-DRG based on: Principal Diagnosis, for Medical patients, or Most Important Surgical Procedure (performed in an O.R.) Each Base APR-DRG is divided into 4 subclasse Mailing Address THCIC Dept. of State Health Services Center for Health Statistics, MC 1898 PO Box 149347 Austin, Texas 78714-9347 Location Moreton Building, M-660 1100 West 49th Street Austin, TX 78756 Phone: 512-776-7261 Fax: 512-776-7740 Email: thcichelp@dshs.texas.go APR-DRG is not covered by L&I Indicates the APR-DRG relative weight; Payment can be calculated by multiplying the APR-DRG relative weight by the Hospital base rate. Low volume APR-DRG. Payment can be calculated by multiplying the APR-DRG type Per Diem rate by the length of stay MED Not Covered PSYCH APR-DRGs from version 31 by 3M Health Informatio APR-DRG-based norms are available from several vendors, which facilitates comparative profiling. APR-DRG norms include length of stay, charges, charges by cost center, and mortality. • Are updated annually. Since the introduction of APR-DRGs in 1990, 3M has routinely updated them annually for ICD-9-CM code changes. Every two to thre

Final APR-DRG Weights Effective July 1, 2018 (v34

  1. ing hospital payment. A comprehensive report of all relevant diagnoses, namely the patient's underlying co-morbidities, is a key factor for ensuring that SOI deter
  2. APR-DRG & Severity of Illness (SOI) Code Assignment The Plan will use submitted claim information to group into the appropriate APR-DRG and Severity of Illness (SOI) code. This will be present on the hospital's Explanation of Payment. The last digit represents the SOI. SOI 1-Minor 2-Moderate 3-Major 4-Extreme Ex APR-DRG 191
  3. APR-DRG: Abbreviation for all patient diagnosis-related group
  4. an APR-DRG is above the target threshold, it will be considered an outlier and the hospital will be reimbursed at 75% of the excess cost above the APR- DRG payment and outlier threshold. Claims from the data set were grouped into the APR-DRG categories, and hospital-specific outlier payments were estimated based upon the statistical threshold.

APR-DRGs in the Medicaid Populatio

MDC Service Lines APR DRG DRG Description *MDC - 10 Surg Endocrine, Nutritional, Metabolic 404 THYROID, PARATHYROID & THYROGLOSSAL PROCEDURES *MDC - 10 Surg Endocrine, Nutritional, Metabolic 405 OTHER PROCEDURES FOR ENDOCRINE, NUTRITIONAL & METABOLIC DISORDER DRGs with a relative weight of less than 1.0 are less resource-intensive to treat and are generally less costly to treat. DRG's with a relative weight of more than 1.0 generally require more resources to treat and are more expensive to treat. The higher the relative weight, the more resources are required to treat a patient with that DRG In the APR-DRG classification, the number of DRGs is reduced to 355 base DRGs by eliminating all age, complications (CC), and major CC distinctions from the AP-DRGs. Every base APR-DRG is assigned two distinct characteristics that measure the severity of illness and the risk of mortality • APR-DRG V.35 grouper and HSRV weights will remain in use for SFY 2020-21. Regular annual updates: • Budget neutral overall • Wage area index values • Wage area neutrality factor • CCRs. Policy changes from SFY 2019-20 to 2020-21* • Statewide base rate: $6,596 $12 increase • Remote rural base rate: $15,036 $421 increas

Each base APR-DRG, however, considers severity of illness and risk of mortality instead of being based on a single complication or comorbidity. When did APR DRG start? APR-DRG Versions Since the original December 1990 release of the APR- DRGs, there have been regular major clinical updates Diagnosis Related Groups (APR DRGs) 21 CHAPTER 3 Determination of Admission All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Groups (APR DRGs) 65 CHAPTER 4 Background and Explanation of Approach for Rerouting Logic in 3M™ All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Groups (APR DRGs), Version 26.1 71 APPENDIX A List of All Patient Refined DRGs, Version 26.1 8

APR-DRG Weights and ALOS for Acute Service

The APR-DRG structure is similar to the AP-DRG, but also measures severity of illness and risk of mortality in addition to resource utilization. Difference between DRGs DRGs vs. AP-DRGs vs. APR-DRGs: An Overview — Read the full post on HEALTHCARE ECONOMIST MDC Service Lines APR DRG DRG Description *MDC - 10 Surg Endocrine, Nutritional, Metabolic 404 THYROID, PARATHYROID & THYROGLOSSAL PROCEDURES *MDC - 10 Surg Endocrine, Nutritional, Metabolic 405 OTHER PROCEDURES FOR ENDOCRINE, NUTRITIONAL & METABOLIC DISORDER

APR-DRG & MS-DRG Education - Pediatric Resource Grou

  1. APR-DRG is maintained by M3 Health Information Systems. APR-DRG is built upon the AP-DRG system and offers an additional level of granularity. The APR-DRG system has 4 categorizations used to identify the level of severity of the illness and risk of mortality. These 4 additional severity categories are
  2. maar vormen een subklasse per APR-DRG groep en verschillen dus per DRG en niet representatief zoals een ASA classificatie vb. leukemie in DRG 694 met SOI-1 kan naast appendectomie in DRG 225 met SOI-3 bestaan toekennen van een severity niveau en sterfterisicoklasse gebeurt via algoritme in verschillende fase
  3. The specific DRG algorithm chosen by DHCS is the All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Groups (APR-DRG). DHCS is implementing version 29 of APR-DRGs. In accordance with W&I Code, Section 14105.28(b)(1)(A)(ii), this bulletin serves as the DHCS Director's execution of declaration certifying that all necessary federal approvals have been.
  4. All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Group (APR DRG) Grouper Version 35 Effective for Discharges on or After 10/1/2017 TRACHEOSTOMY W MV 96+ HOURS W EXTENSIVE PROCEDURE ALTERATION IN CONSCIOUSNESS DENTAL DISEASES AND DISORDERS OTHER GASTROENTERITIS, NAUSEA & VOMITING CHOLECYSTECTOMY ADRENAL PROCEDURES OTHER NON-HYPOVOLEMIC ELECTROLYTE DISORDER

Inpatient Hospital APR-DRG Reimbursement Values. The appearance on this website of a code and rate is not an indication of coverage, nor a guarantee of payment. AHCCCS covered procedures can be viewed in the AHCCCS Medical Policy Manual (AMPM). AHCCCS covered services can differ based upon enrollment apr-drg Veuillez noter que le contenu des fiches ne reflète pas les changements occasionnés par la Loi modifiant l'organisation et la gouvernance du réseau de la santé et des services sociaux, notamment par l'abolition des agences régionales et la réorganisation des établissements

Video: All Patient Refined Diagnostic Related Groups (APR-DRGs

Importance of coding co-morbidities for APR-DRG assignment

APR-DRGs appeared to only capture a fraction of the entire trauma population and it tends to be the more severely ill patients. As a result, the administrative data was not able to accurately answer hospital or operating room utilization as well as specific information on diagnosis categories regard The APR-DRG system is copyrighted by 3M - they' have the entire list, but they do not release this list to the public. You must 'buy' the 3M product, and even then, they do not have a compiled list of all of the conditions affecting ROM/SOI. By law, this private firm is no HCA uses 3M APR-DRG standard national weights. All transplant, bariatric services, detoxification, rehabilitation, psychiatric and LTAC provider claims with acute DRGs carved out of the DRG system. Rate updates - rates updated annually. Rate updates will include new wage and education adjustments

diagnosis-related groups (DRG) reimbursement methodology. Introduction Beginning in July 2013, payment for inpatient general acute care for many hospitals is calculated using an all patient refined diagnosis related groups (APR-DRG) model. DRG is a system that uses information on the claim (including revenue, diagnosis and procedur Texas APR-DRG Grouper current version (V36) (.pdf) Click here to view the Grouper version change announcement. Texas APR-DRG Grouper (V37.1 - Informational Only) (.pdf) Current and previous versions of all SDA rates and APR DRG Grouper information are available on the TMHP website. Inpatient Ratio of Cost to Charges (RCC Rates) - effective 08.

APR-DRG definition of APR-DRG by Medical dictionar

  1. APR-DRG. The South Carolina Department of Health and Human Services (SCDHHS) intends to move to a new method of paying for hospital inpatient services. The new method will be based on All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Groups (APR-DRGs). Our goals are to implement a new payment method that is sustainable and more appropriate to Medicaid.
  2. Effective July 1, 2012, Medicaid updated the APR-DRG grouper to version 29. APR-DRG grouper version 27 was in effect from July 1, 2010 through June 30, 2011. APR-DRG grouper . version 28 was in effect from July 1, 2011 through June 30, 2012. CODING AND BILLIN
  3. Relative Value, Average Length of Stay, High- and Low-Cost Outlier T hreshold and Percentage Table For APR-DRG Grouper V ersion 36 Fee-for-Service I npatient Claims Billed By Acute Care General Hospitals Enrolled In PA Medical Assistance APR-DRG Severity of Illness (SOI) APR_DRG Description Relative Weight Average.
  4. DC APR-DRG FY16 Pricing Calculator for hospitals 2015-10-01 DCs15076.xlsx DC APR-DRG Pricing Calculator for hospitals 2014-08-29 S181.xls APR-DRG Calculator Instruction
  5. drg 179: respiratory infections and inflammations without complication or comorbidity (cc)/major complication or comorbidity (mcc) - market size, prevalence, incidence, quality outcomes, top hospitals & physicians. want to know more about dexur's capabilities? get in touch

A resource geared toward APR-DRG's would be extremely helpful, especially if the resource includes guidance for disease processes related to Obstetrics, labor & delivery and neonates. Thanks! nzd1980. July 2019. larchibald said: Hi all, ACDIS is considering developing an APR-DRG resource and we'd love your input! If you have a moment, please. APR-DRG, Montérégie, 2009-2010 Source : APR-DRG, MSSS, Données 2009-2010, production de la Montérégie en santé physique de courte durée, cas typiques. Ancienne Nouvelle Différence Nombre de cas 92 287 92 287 0,0 % NIRRU moyen 0,9125 0,8690 -4,8 % Nombre Pourcentage Nombre Pourcentag Grouper 38 DRG Weights & Geometric Mean Length of Stay Effective Date 01/01/2021 MS‐DRG MS‐DRG Title DSS Final Weight DSS Geometric LOS 001 HEART TRANSPLANT OR IMPLANT OF HEART ASSIST SYSTEM WITH MCC 53.1285 30.2 002 HEART TRANSPLANT OR IMPLANT OF HEART ASSIST SYSTEM WITHOUT MCC 29.2210 16.4 00 Learn more and register: https://info.managedresourcesinc.com/webinar-apr-drg-101#managedresources #aprdrg

The 3M All Patient Refined DRG (APR DRG) Classification System is widely used for adjusting data for severity of illness (SOI) and risk of mortality (ROM). Public and commercial organizations use the 3M APR DRG methodology for payment or public quality reporting APR DRGs allow both providers and payers to categorize complex patient claims data into more than 1,200 unique groups for analysis and payment. Wyoming Medicaid will use 3M's APR DRG grouping and pricing software to classify cases and to determine a prospective rate. This methodology will improv

DRG Payment System: How Hospitals Get Pai

• APR-DRG consists of 314 base DRGs. Each base DRG has four levels of severity: - Level 1: minor - Level 2: moderate - Level 3: major - Level 4: extreme • There are a total of 1,256 separate codes and relative weights. The number of codes is subject to change. • There are two additional ungroupable DRGs CHARACTERISTICS OF APR-DRGs Diagnosis-Related Groups Reimbursement Payments for inpatient general acute care for many hospitals are calculated using an All Patient Refined Diagnosis-Related Groups (APR-DRG) reimbursement methodology. For the purposes of this module, APR-DRG is referred to as the DRG reimbursement method or the DRG model 4. Tables 7A and 7B (Final Rule and Correction Notice) (ZIP) : Tables 7A and 7B contain the number of discharges, and selected percentile lengths of stay for both MS-DRGs, version 36 and MS-DRGs, version 37. This file contains 3 tabs: Table 7A (final rule) Table 7B (final rule), and Table 7B correction notice) Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG) Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG) weight tables are provided for reference by various healthcare partners and providers. The relative weight tables are used by the Department to reimburse hospitals for inpatient services. DRG Weight Tables. July 1, 2020 - APR-DRG Version 33 (Excel Version CMS increased the number of MS-DRGs from 761 to 767 for FY 2021. CMS created 12 new MS-DRGs and deleted six MS‑DRGs for FY 2021. For more information regarding the MS‑DRG changes, specifically new MS-DRGs, deleted MS‑DRGs and revised title descriptions, refer t

DRG - PC Pricer. The PC Pricer is a tool used to estimate Medicare PPS payments. The final payment may not be precise to how payments are determined in the Medicare claims processing system due to the fact that some data is factored in the PC Pricer payment amount that is paid by Medicare via provider cost reports. In addition, variance between. Inpatient claims with discharge dates on or after September 1, 2020, which were originally processed under APR-DRG Grouper version 37.1, will be reprocessed using Grouper version 36 logic and relative weights. HHSC is also reviewing claims with discharge dates between October 1, 2019, and August 31, 2020, that were processed under APR-DRG. Research Hospitalization Volume, DRGs, Quality Outcomes, Top Hospitals & Physicians for DRG 945: REHABILITATION WITH COMPLICATION OR COMORBIDITY (CC)/MAJOR COMPLICATION OR COMORBIDITY (MCC APS-DRGs. Education Details: or after October 1, 2007.MS-DRG changes are summarized below.The new MS-DRGs are based upon the previous CMS DRGs and build upon the severity DRG research performed by CMS and others over the past 25 years.Development of the MS-DRGs involved the following activities: • Consolidation of existing CMS DRGs into a new set of base DRGs Spawning Tool organizes StarCraft 2 build orders, guides, and replay

Using Severity Adjustment Classification for Hospital

14-Apr-2011 Neues Zertifikat für DRG Liste B Produkte! DRG kann nach dem gerade bestandenen Audit die Palette der CE genehmigten Liste B Produkte erweitern. Wir sind stolz unser neues Zertifikat zu präsentieren. Mehr.. In the APR-DRG classification, episodes within a given Major Diagnostic Category (MDC), which correspond to a specific diagnosis area, will be assigned to a disease-or procedure-specific base APR-DRG

[Full text] The costs of fluid overload in the adult

What are APR DRGs? - TreeHozz

AP-DRGs are similar to DRGs, but also include a more detailed DRG breakdown for non-Medicare patients, particularly newborns and children. The APR-DRG structure is similar to the AP-DRG, but also measures severity of illness and risk of mortality in addition to resource utilization of APR DRG: Discharge dates: On March 16, 2018 - claims with a discharge date on or after October 1, 2017 will process using the APR DRG Version 35.0 classification system. Mass Adjustments: The Department will begin to mass adjust claims submitted for discharge dates from October 1, 2017 through March 15, 2018 at a later date apr-drg=007 007 allogene beenmergtransplantatie. apr-drg=008 008 autologe beenmergtransplantatie. apr-drg=009 009 extracorporele membraanoxygenatie (ecmo) apr-drg=010 010 hoofdtrauma met diepe coma. mdc 01. apr-drg=020 020 craniotomie voor trauma. apr-drg=021 021 craniotomie behalve voor trauma. apr-drg=022 022 procedures op ventriculaire shunt. APR-DRG 225 Appendectomy Severity level 4 Extreme APR/SEV Weight 3.0654 Network Outlier Cost Threshold $21,256 Facility Rate (illustrative) $10,000 Facility Charges $124,96

APR-DRG Overview - YouTub

Cesarean Delivery (APR-DRG 540) Average Hospital Charges for Adults 18 Years and Older, Utah, 2008 Level of Illness Minor/Moderate Major/Extreme Level of Illness: Compared to patients with minor/moderate level of illness, patients with major/extreme level of illness are likely to have more serious conditions that require more complex treatment As soon as Diagnosis related Groups (DRG) were introduced in many hospital financing systems, most nursing research revealed that DRG were not very homogeneous with regard to nursing care. However, few studies are based on All Patient refined Diagnosis related Groups (APR-DRGs) and few of them use recent data. Objectives of this study are: (1) to evaluate if nursing activity is homogeneous by. DRG Weight* APR-DRG Data Table effective on and after October 1, 2018 State of New Jersey Weights Version 34 Grouper 045 3 CVA & PRECEREBRAL OCCLUSION W INFARCT: $ 33,202 17: 5 2.06525: 045 4 CVA & PRECEREBRAL OCCLUSION W INFARCT: $ 72,632 30: 9 4.29905: 046 1 NONSPECIFIC CVA & PRECEREBRAL OCCLUSION W/O INFARCT: $ 25,000 6: 2 1.1559 An APR-DRG SOI subclassification ≥3 was a modest independent predictor of early or any readmission, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 2.09 to 3.33. Models that combined the APR-DRG SOI subclassification with clinical factors present before the index hospitalization had strong C-statistics of ≥0.80

What is DRG (Diagnosis Related Group)

L'APR-DRG explore l'univers des données du système DRG Vaginal Delivery (APR-DRG 560) Average Hospital Charges for Adults 18 Years and Older, Utah, 2007 Level of Illness Minor/Moderate Major/Extreme Average Charge: The average dollars for hospital services for which patients were billed at a particular hospital. The charge does not include physicians' professional fees or patient personal costs

The Importance of a Business Associate Agreement

APR DRGs (All Patient Refined) address non-Medicare populations that include pediatric patients and incorporate severity of illness subclasses using the member's age (in days), weight, severity of illness, and risk of mortality to estimate the resource intensity required for care The APR DRG system is applicable to a broader spectrum of the population than DRGs. DRGs show severity of illness when impacted by a condition considered a cc or mcc or a procedure. This is a predefined list developed and maintained by CMS The Maryland Payment with 3M All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Grouper System (APR DRGS) Grouping and Reimbursement is a patient classification and reimbursement system based on the standard 3M APR DRG classification grouper. The product is used for Maryland in-patient admissions and includes grouping and code mapping specifications.

PPT - ICD-10-CM/PCS: APR DRG vDrBR 75 057 DRG aus Märklin 2665 jetzt mit Sound! - StummisSolary - Fortnite Esports WikiStatistical Report On The Sickness And Mortality In The

Foundational Coding: APR-DRG Documentation Introduce the components of the APR-DRG system Examine APR-DRGs and documentation strategies Discuss APR-DRG promotion and demotion logic Review APR-DRG levels and code choices Toggle Nav. Menu. Bundled Solutions; Career Pathways. 3M™ All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Groups (APR DRGs) Classification System v38.0 summary of changes This document identifies changes planned for v38.0 of the 3M™ All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Groups (APR DRG) Classification System, effective October 1, 2020. Although we do no APR-DRG is All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Grouper. Payment index values are normalized around the national average, which has a value of 1.0. For example, a state with an index value of 1.10 would have payments that were 10 percent higher than the national average. States have been de-identified to draw attention to how states. This dataset is the version 33 of APR-DRG Weights (All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Group) and ALOS (Average Length of Stay) for acute care services. The APR-DRG weights effective January 1, 2017 will not be updated. For discharges beginning on or after January 1, 2017, the SIWs (Service Intensity Weights), cost thresholds and ALOS effective July 1, 2014 will be used for payment purposes. APR DRG DRG Description Weight Mean Length of Stay (MLOS) Day Outlier Threshold Weight Mean Length of Stay (MLOS) Day Outlier Threshold 007‐1 ALLOGENEIC BONE MARROW TRANSPLANT 9.0159 23.0 41 5.6245 5.2 23 007‐2 ALLOGENEIC BONE MARROW TRANSPLANT 13.1525 36.3 96 6.5899 21.1 3 1$9,*$17 &2168/7,1* ,1& $// 5,*+76 5(6(59('&rqilghqwldo dqg 3ursulhwdu\ *(1(5$/ +286(.((3,1* 3ohdvh pxwh \rxu olqh li qrw dvnlqj d txhvwlr